Architecture is a varied industry. It is the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a structure. In some cases, architectural buildings and structures can be considered cultural symbols, or works of art. An architectural structure should strive to be durable, suitable for the purposes it’s built for, and aesthetically beautiful.
Ancient architecture, such as Greek and Roman structures, evolved from societal ideals. Roman architecture was influenced by Greek architecture, and they incorporated many of the architectural elements found in Greek structures. Texts written on architecture have existed since these ancient times, providing advice, designs, and formal prescriptions.
Early Asian architecture developed along more religious fundamentals. Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture in Asian architecture all have specific and defining characteristics. For example, Buddhist architecture showed great regional diversity, and Hindu architecture was concerned with expressing the macrocosm and the microcosm. In many Asian countries, religion led to architectural forms that were designed specifically to enhance the natural landscape.
In Islamic Architecture, features were developed to suit the religious and social needs of the Islamic people. Examples can be found throughout the Middle East, North Africa, Spain and the Indian Sub-continent.
Architecture from the Middle Ages were mainly were formed by craftsmen to organise their trades. The role of these architects was usually one with that of a master mason.
With Renaissance Architecture came the revival of classical learning accompanied by the development of Renaissance Humanism, which placed greater emphasis on the role of the individual in society.
Then came Early Modern architecture. The industrial age, with the rise of more scientific fields, and new materials and technology. Architecture began to concentrate on aesthetics, often at the expense of the technical aspects of building designs. Formal architectural training in the 19th century emphasised the production of striking drawing designs.
Architecture in Modernism began around the 20th century, but in the beginning, there was a general dissatisfaction with the emphasis on revivalist architecture. It was in 1919, in Germany, that architectural boundaries were reviewed, and the creation of a building as the ultimate apex of art, craft, and technology became the ideals for modern architecture.
Many architects resisted modernism, finding it empty of the decorative richness of other historical styles. In the late 1950s and 1960s, architectural phenomenology arose as a significant movement in the initial reaction against modernism. Postmodernism produced a style that combined contemporary building technology, and cheap materials, while also using the aesthetics of older pre-modern styles.
Today’s architecture is full of structurally complex buildings. The field of architecture has filled itself with specialised disciplines for each kind of project type, and there has been an increased separation between what it means to be a “design” architect, and a “project” architect. Architectural companies now have wide-spread teams. For example, Adam architecture has a team of 70 staff across their offices in Winchester and London. They are a force of highly skilled, experienced workers. Including architects, technologists, urban designers, an historical researcher, consultants, project managers and administrative support staff.